Category Archives: The Study

43 Free Career-Advancing Courses You Can Take (and Actually Finish) This Summer

About The Author

Career Guidance

A board member of Columbia Organization of Rising Entrepreneurs, Kat is either hosting inspiring founders or trekking across cities (Silicon Valley and London, anyone?) to discover the hottest startups. And, when she’s not putting together large-group gatherings for InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, Kat is planning food excursions to discover the best Taiwanese beef noodle soup in NYC. The only thing she loves almost as much as crafting content as an Editorial Intern at The Muse is studying content as an English Major at Columbia University. Say hi on Twitter @katxmoon.



Wednesdays Visual Writing Prompt

Wednesdays hit mid-week when the stress in our lives is hopefully at it’s lowest point. We’ve managed the Monday Rush and the Tuesday catch-up, and are ready to breathe a little. Now is the perfect time to get your writing mind back in action!

If You Don’t Use It – You Lose It

It is important that you exercise your writing ability. There is always room for improvement, and with a regular schedule of flexing your creative writing habit, you could be just one writers prompt away from that New York Times best seller!

Use this prompt to think outside the box, to go somewhere with your writing that you had never dare go before. See what kind of magic you can work with that brilliant mind of yours. You are a story-teller so this should be a breeze.

Maybe you could use this prompt to add a scene to the current book you are writing. A picture like this can spark ideas you may never have considered.

The Rules

There aren’t really many rules, just enough to get your blog some attention and get new people interested in your writing or the current book you have to offer.

  • Write in any genre you like – poetry too
  • Tag this post in your post (share this post to your WordPress blog as a new post) so I can find you (it will ping back to this post), then I can check out your work, and promote you on my social sites.
  • If you want, when your done, Check which famous writer you write like with a statistical analysis tool, which analyzes your word choice and writing style and compares them with those of the famous writers. Just paste your completed work at  I Write Like – You will be given a badge that says which famous author you write like and you can paste the html into the end of your Wednesday Visual Writers Prompt, if you like, to show us all your badge! AWESOME
  • You have until the following Tuesday to complete this writers prompt, then I will be posting a new one on the following day, next Wednesday.

If you have any suggestions for future Wednesday Visual Writing Prompts, please let me know in the comments 🙂

I look forward to reading your writing.  

Michelle Rene

(if you post past the deadline I will do my best to read your work and share it on my social networks as time permits)

For Professional Cover Design & Illustration See Michelle Rene

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The key elements of an Author Media Kit?

An author bio

You’ll need two bios: one short and one long. Or, at the very least, one long bio where the first paragraph or two can stand on their own.

Some quick pointers on your author bio:

Be engaging. Unless you are writing cat books for an audience of cat lovers and want to get interviewed on, no one cares about your cats (I do, I love cats, but the media doesn’t). However, if your cat once dragged in an old key, covered in moss, which inspired you to write your first adventure novel, well that is engaging and has to go in the bio.

Be yourself. Try and inject as much of your personality as possible into your bio. Don’t force humor into it if you don’t have a funny bone in your body. Try and show people that you are not just an author, but a real live human being as well and they may just form a connection with you.

Try and include anything that will make you stand out from the crowd.

[Your name here] is the author of [your genre here] novels [your book titles here].

She started writing horror stories after being trapped in an archaeological dig for 2 days. This was the subject of her breakthrough novel.

He started writing (sometimes corny) Science Fiction after seeing a worm hole in an apple.

After having her life saved by a man dressed like Sherlock Holmes she became fascinated with him and started writing fan fiction.

An author photo

This is all about you building a brand. Go and get a professional author photo. Go and do it now. Actually, wait, finish reading this and THEN go and get it done. Once you have an author photo NEVER CHANGE IT!

It will be something that people identify with for years to come. When Ian Fleming’s photo wasn’t included on the cover of one of his books, readers were up in arms.

Look at self-published author David Gaughran, his photo is brilliant, it’s instantly recognizable.

If you’ve got amazing photo skills (or have a friend who does) then by all means do it yourself. Include a prop, smile, be sincere, whatever it takes to reflect yourself and your personality.

Make sure you have copies of the photo in 300dpi resolution (for print) and 72dpi for the web. If you want to go all out, have a choice of photos and provide them in B&W as well.

Here’s a great example of an author press kit with a lot of photos.

Reviews / Awards

If you have reviews then you need to include a few of the best here. Don’t include too many, just keep it short and sweet. Do include the one from the New York Times, don’t include the one from your mum, her opinion doesn’t carry any weight here (unless she’s the editor of the New York Times Book Review).

You should also include any awards you have won, especially if they have a shiny badge that you can embed on the page. It’s all about verification.


What you need here is to show that you have actually thought about your target market and who your book appeals to. If you can lay out a reason why your book appeals perfectly to a certain cross section of the disaffected youth of today, then the editor of Disaffected Youth will be far easier to convince to cover your story.

The media are only out to provide stories that are relevant to their audience, so it is your responsibility to make yourself relevant to the right people.

Press contact details

If you’ve got someone doing publicity for you, or even a publisher, then make sure that their contact details are immediately obvious. If a journalist likes what you have to offer, they will be in touch for a follow up.

If you are a multitasking independent author, then try and provide contact information that looks professional. For example, a phone number and an email address that isn’ but (you do have an author website, don’t you?).

Some sample interview questions

In keeping with the theme here, we’re trying to make it easy. Journalists don’t want to have to think too much. Give them some sample interview questions that allow you to showcase your amazing personality and your life changing book. You can be straightforward or creative, it’s entirely up to you and does of course depend on your genre. A book on poverty in the third world is going to need a different approach to a quirky Young Adult novel.

You can even pre-answer the questions, it just make things easier for the really lazy busy researcher.

Social media, videos etc.

Provide a list of links to all of your social media profiles. People do want to see what else you are up to.

If you have done interviews or podcasts then embed them, or at least provide links to them. People will want to see if you come across well on the screen or if you have an appealing voice. If you haven’t done any interviews yet then I would strongly recommend doing a video interview with a friend, recording it and putting it in.

Press release

Include the latest press release for your book. While your press release will of course have been tailored to each and every media contact that you send it to, you should also have a generic one. Put a link to it here.

Speaking engagements / Events

If you’ve got some exciting events lined up then include them, but don’t go overboard.

Okay, so we’ve got the essentials of your author press kit together. Now what?

First rule of author media kit success: Keep it updated. New books, new photos, new press releases, new events? Make sure they find their way to your kit.

Second rule of author media kit success: Make some noise. Generate some publicity. Approach media contacts with carefully designed press releases. You get the idea.

Third rule of media author kit success: Make it visible on your site. Put a menu item in your navigation bar, right next to the “about” and “books” links.

That’s it! Your next step is to get back to your writing so that you have plenty of books ready to sell when Oprah, the New York Times, or even your local college radio show come knocking at your door.

And to give you some inspiration, here are some Author Media Kit examples:

Fiction Author Media Kits

CJ Lyons | Stefanie Sloane | Adrienne Giordano | Carly Phillips | Lisa Jackson

Non-Fiction Author Media Kits

Tim Ferriss | Mardie Caldwell

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The Story of Runes

alcuin-manuscriptRunes have been used in Britain since the Dark Ages. When the Romans abandoned Britain around 450AD, waves of immigrants from Europe came and settled in this green and pleasant land. The Friesians from the Netherlands, the Angles and Saxons from Germany, then the Jutes and Norsemen (Vikings) from Scandinavia.

They brought with them their set of ancient symbols known as the runes. Originally there were 24 runes and they are collectively known as “the Futhark”.

People used runes for writing messages, inscriptions and epitaphs; as amulets and charms; as an oracle for use in divination; and for rituals, magic and spells.

No-one knows exactly how old the runes are. Rune-like symbols appear as cave markings as early as the late Bronze Age (circa 1300 BC), and they are mentioned in the Bible, but their use in ritual and as an Oracle for consultation must certainly pre-date their use as a system of writing.

Eminent scientific runologist Dr R. I. Page of Cambridge University (An Introduction to English Runes 1973,1999 and Reading the Past – Runes 1987) notes that the runic forms were well established and gave the appearance of having been in use for some centuries before the time of the earliest written language inscriptions.

gif image: runestavesThe fact that the runes were each given meaningful names confirms that they had some magical or religious significance to their users long before they emerged as an alphabet for records and messages.

The word rune itself comes from the old Norse word Runa meaning a secret or mystery, and it seems likely that the early runemasters and runemistresses were considered to have some magic or mystic power in their understanding of the runes.

The runes represent objects, gods, people, animals, concepts and occurrences. They were known by names from which their alphabetic and phonetic values were taken, but it must be remembered that the early Germanic and Norse tribes who developed them did so long before they had any need for writing messages.

It was not until about AD200, when the runemal (i.e. the art of runic interpretation) was wide-spread in Northern Europe that the runic alphabet emerged. This alphabet became known as the Futhark or Futhorc, after the names of the first 6 runes (Fehu, Uruz, Thurisaz, Ansuz, Raido, Kauno) and it is these 24 symbols that now comprise the rune set. Some modern diviners also use a blank to represent Odin, fate or destiny – but it is probably more useful as a spare in case of loss. A blank cannot rightfully be called a “rune” because there is no symbol on it. And in any case, the rune Ansuz is generally accepted to represent Odin by the majority of experienced rune users.

There are very few surviving runic inscriptions and most of them are on stone or metal – the most durable of materials. Only a handful of inscriptions carved on wood have ever been found, and none of these is from Britain.

There is sufficient evidence to show that the Ancient Pagan or Anglo-Saxon runes (known to runologists as the Anglo-Friesian runes from their geographical occurrence) are the same 24 basic runes with variations in their form due to usage over the centuries.

For example, the Hagalaz of the Norse resembled an angled H but the Anglo-Saxons added a second cross-bar.

jpeg image: anglo-saxon hagalaz runeVariations in pronunciation can also occur. For instance, the Norsemen pronounced W as a V, but Anglo-Saxons had adapted this to the modern W sound by 600AD.

There are those who suggest that many of the rune forms are copied from Roman script – the system of letters on which modern Western writing is based.

Such examples as Mannaz (M), Fehu (F), Berkanan (B), Raido (R) are obviously very similar, but it seems more likely to me that the rune symbols (although not then used as letters) are earlier in development. Or at least, they were developed from the same source as the Roman script.

Consider the technology and equipment that was necessary to undertake Roman writing. Parchment or paper with all the processing that requires – such as blanching chemicals and drying processes; the formulation of durable ink and its mass production; and not forgetting the development of a complex writing implement such as the quill pen. A civilization is hardly likely to undertake all these developments unless a suitable format for writing already existed.

Look now at the needs of the runemaster or runemistress, what did they require? Nothing more than a stick of wood and a sharp knife to incise the runes. Both of these requisites have been available to Man from the very earliest times. That runes were initially cut in wood there is no doubt. The very shape of the runes confirm this by the avoidance of the horizontal or curved line.

If you experiment with a flat wood surface you will find that it is very easy to cut straight lines across the grain. It is much more difficult to cut a curve with a straight knife blade. And it is almost impossible to cut a line horizontally along the grain – the cut closes up as the wood dries, and the line thus disappears.

The early runemasters and runemistresses therefore developed a system of writing from their existing fund of mystic or religious symbols which would endure on wood. The symbols were composed of vertical and angled straight lines that could easily be cut or burned in wood.

The later Roman historian Cornelius Tacitus (58-120AD) records a Germanic tribal Runemal in some detail in Chapter 10 of his ethnographical work Germania from about 97AD when he was Consul to the region:

To divination they pay much attention. Their method is a simple one: they cut a branch from a fruit-bearing tree and divide it into small pieces which they mark with certain distinctive signs and scatter at random onto a white cloth. Then the priest of the community (if it is done publicly) or the father of the family (if it is done privately) after invoking the gods and with eyes raised to heaven, picks up three pieces one at a time and interprets them in accordance with the signs previously marked on them.

When the high chieftains and lawgivers of Anglo-Saxon England met in secret, their assemblies were known as The Runes: and a 4th Century translation of the Bible uses the word Runa for “mystery” or “secret proceedings”.

gif image: rune manuscriptThe ancient Norse prose tales of the Edda have Odin hung on the World Tree when he spies the runes and seizes them up to gain wisdom and well-being. The Edda also mentions Bragi, master of the skalds (minstrels) and a great storyteller who reputedly had runes tattooed on his tongue – a reference to his magical gift as a raconteur.

The slightly later poem Erik the Red describes a Runemistress in full regalia.

Coming to modern references, the traditional lore of Finland as recorded in the Kalevala by Lönnrot in 1835 describes a confrontation of wizards where runic songs were used to cause fire and devastation.

Some modern experts allege that stones were commonly used for the Runemal, but I have found no evidence of this despite extensive research. The indications, whether from runology, known Pagan religious beliefs, or Saxon witchcraft ritual, all point to the use of wood, particularly from fruit-bearing trees.

A lot have been said on the origin of the runes. And despite this, not much is certain about the actual truth of their origin. A main reason for this problem, might be that we are simply looking for the answers in the wrong places, or otherwise in periods of time too close to our present day in history.

Basically, the runes never left the scene. Despite the attempts by the Christian church to ban their use at several points of time in history, and despite and the introduction of an alternative alien writing system that came to dominate Europe. Instead they were in use from their very distant past, all into our present day. Some attempts were made for example in Sweden during the early 17′th century – mainly due to the efforts of Johannes Bureus – to revitalize them into a writing system for common everyday use, by publishing a sort of runic alphabet book called Runa ABC.
Others advocated their use as sinnbilder (icons/symbols) of various meaning. In particular the later use, as symbols, had quite some success in the late 1800′s and early 1900′s in Germany and Scandinavia, during the Völkisch and Göticism movements. And indeed, even in present day Sweden (and elsewhere, of course) the runes live on as rather mundane symbols on for example road signs, and for branding of eggs to mention a few. The bindrune of Bluetooth (as in Harald Bluetooth) is another fine example of this.

Actually, a rather modern set of runes – the Dalecarlian Runes – were very much alive and in everyday use as a writing system in Dalarna/Sweden, as late as in the 20′th century.Murarmärken/Stenhuggarmärken (mason’s marks) and Bomärken (house marks) often have undeniable runic origins, and have pretty much been in continuous use in northern Europe from times immemorial until present day.

House marks from Hiddensee/Germany

House marks from Rügen/Germany

Elder and Younger FUTHARK

The Elder Futhark of 24 runes seems to appear around 100-200 c.e., first and foremost on (today, rather in) Scandinavian soil. Around 600-700 c.e. this rune row is gradually replaced by the Younger Futhark of 16 runes. According to some less academically oriented people , the Younger Futhark lacks the potent properties of the Elder Futhark for interacting with and causing changes in the Wyrd (i.e. they are not useful as “magical tools”).

Speaking of magical tools, Tacitus wrote in his Germania that Germanic tribes “cut off a branch from a nut-bearing tree and slice it into strips, these they mark with different signs and throw them at random onto a white cloth”, for a divinatory tool as early as year 9 c.e. Nothing is said of how old this practice was at that particular time, but it might very well fall back as far as to the very beginning of what we consider enlightened spiritual humans, and probably does.

When talking of preserved runic material though, it’s very important to remember that a mere fraction of all runes where made in materials that don’t degrade into dirt within few decades (such as stone or metal). The majority were made in degradable materials that disappear rather quickly, unless the conditions are in favor for preserving bio material, such as in certain soil, swamps and bogs etc.

The modern Swedish word bok (and German Buch) means book, but is also the word for beech (Fagus sylvatica), and even the word for letter is bokstav (beech stick/stave). This is because prior to writing on parchment, vellum or paper, they carved runes onto sticks or plates made of beech primarily. As an example, the daughter of Egill Skallagrímsson(Thorgerd Egilsdóttir) carved onto a stick the lay of Egill later known as Sonatorrek, “on the fly” as he sung it for the first time.

Origin of the Runes

The origins of the runes are lost in distant Proto-Indo-European history but can be traced to the Audhumbla of Indo-European writing itself.

Some of the earliest known writing systems of Indo-European descent, such as the recently discovered Romanian (Tărtăria) scripts, the Vinča, Phoenician, Archaic Greek, pre-Sanskrit and Indus symbols/(proto-)writing systems – stretching as far back in history as to the 6′th millennium b.c.e. or even more – there is a  resemblance to modern runes.

Tărtăria script, some dated as old as 6 000 b.c.e.

Pre-runic Bronze Age rock carvings

Vinča script (6th-5th millennia b.c.e.)

In her book Plato Prehistorian: 10,000 to 5000 B.C. Myth, Religion, Archaeology, the author Mary Settegast claims to show evidence of pre-runic scriptures not only in Bronze Age rock carvings, but as far back as in Magdalenian cave paintings dating as far back as at least 17 000 – 12 000 years ago. And indeed, just looking at Scandinavian Bronze Age rock carvings, reveals that there are runic symbols appearing over and over again. Alongside the usual petroglyphs, Fylfot and Triskelion variations, you occasionally find single runes of the Elder Futhark such as Algiz, Tiwaz, Sowilo, Dagaz and Othala in various forms.

As there are more clear likeness between some of these archaic symbols and the Elder Futhark, than there is between them and the Roman alphabet – the claim that they are “inspired by Roman letters”, might not be correct, a far older proto-Indo-European connection could be the answer.

The Germanic runes of the Elder Futhark might not have been used as a complete writing system until around 150 c.e., as is rightfully claimed by mainstream authorities in the field of history. And indeed, perhaps actually writing with runes might have come into being due to inspiration from other tribes and groups of people, such as the Romans. But the runes themselves may originate from a far more distant past than that, used as sinnbilder for ritual/ceremonial purposes, as means to interact with the Wyrd (magic), and likely as a form of early heraldry (with all likeliness, many traditional heraldic elements have runic roots, among them the Wolfsangel).



The Study – For Writers – How to Write a Character Sketch

Portrait of Grief by artist Michelle Rene Goodhew
drawing by Michelle Rene Goodhew at

A sketch is a starting point. In the visual arts, artists carry around sketch pads to practice and develop the fundamental skills of their craft with the aim of producing paintings that seem to jump off the canvas, or sculptures that seem to move in just the right light. The same is true for authors who use character sketches. Writers use this tool to develop and rehearse one of the fundamental skills of their craft—characterization. However, the final goal is not to have a notepad full of character sketches. An author should get to know his or her character through this practice. While not everything that an author writes in a character sketch must be included in the novel, the author should develop an in-depth and all-encompassing knowledge of every facet of the character’s personality in order to create a consistent and engaging persona. The ultimate goal of a writer is to take these character sketches and use them to craft a wonderfully engrossing, character-driven work of fiction.

drawing by Michelle Rene Goodhew at
drawing by Michelle Rene Goodhew at

A sketch is a starting point. In the visual arts, artists carry around sketch pads to practice and develop the fundamental skills of their craft with the aim of producing paintings that seem to jump off the canvas, or sculptures that seem to move in just the right light. The same is true for authors who use character sketches. Writers use this tool to develop and rehearse one of the fundamental skills of their craft—characterization. However, the final goal is not to have a notepad full of character sketches. An author should get to know his or her character through this practice. While not everything that an author writes in a character sketch must be included in the novel, the author should develop an in-depth and all-encompassing knowledge of every facet of the character’s personality in order to create a consistent and engaging persona. The ultimate goal of a writer is to take these character sketches and use them to craft a wonderfully engrossing, character-driven work of fiction.

A Character Sketch is a great way to assess the characters in the literature you are reading or people that you are researching about. It can give you tools of observation as you look at the many details about another individual.

When studying a specific character in a literary piece the sketch gives you the freedom to be a detective and try to find out what the author is expressing through their characters. You can sketch the protagonist ( the favorable hero or heroine in the story,) or the antagonist ( the character which causes the conflict for the main character), or the supporting characters. This sharpens the skill of observation and note-taking as you focus on one specific character and the traits that make them ‘who they are’ in the book.

Can you write a sketch without a book to study? Absolutely!  A great way to practice is to sketch someone you know in real-life.

When you are writing a Character Sketch, want to look for qualities of character and/or personality traits that you see in the person you want to write about.  The main goal of this is to be able to tell something  about the person you are researching. Think of it like an introduction.  In essence, you are introducing the reader to the person you are writing about.

drawing by Michelle Rene Goodhew at
drawing by Michelle Rene Goodhew at

Be sure to use strong visual words in your writing. You want to provide a lasting mental image of the person or character you are writing about. The use of quality adjectives and feeling in your writing, using words that relate to the five senses,  elicit an emotional response from your reader.  This will allow your reader to not only connect with you and the character but will show how you felt when reading a piece or spending time with the person you are writing about.

This type of writing only requires you to give a brief glimpse of the individual. When you are preparing to write make a list of the traits or details you want to include. It is possible to assign the number of traits equal to the # of paragraphs or supporting topics needed.  Or you can categorize the subjects into a broader spectrum which allows you to have multiple supporting points for each topic.  It is always best to outline your writing material first so you have a good idea what you are writing.

Your outline should include descriptions on the following details:

°  Tell about their physical features. ( hair color, height, etc.)

°  Tell about the character’s personality. ( are they funny, serious, quiet, etc.?)

°  Their  likes or dislikes( What you know about their preferences and why?)

°  Talk about their family ( siblings, family history, etc)

°  What are their  beliefs or  hobbies?

°  Include anything that makes us see “who” they are.

°  What do you like or dislike about them?

°  Why are you drawn to them?

drawing by Michelle Rene Goodhew at
drawing by Michelle Rene Goodhew at

Here is a sample outline for you to follow. It is a basic 5 paragraph ( approximately 500 wd essay outline)  Feel free to take this and make it your own or make your own outline using this a s a guide.


  1. Introduction:

This section will introduce the character and is typically the 1stparagraph in  your paper.  It should include the following:

  • Your thesis statement ( the overall theme of the paper or the main idea of what you are writing) . The Thesis statement should  include the most  important character traits.
  • The subtopics ( these become the topic sentence in your body paragraphs) should be included in this paragraph as well. For example: use 1 – 2 sentences to list the traits that you are going to talk about. End with a transition sentence that ties into the 2nd paragraph.
  1. Body:

This is paragraphs 2-4 or the in between paragraphs. The body comes between the Introduction and the Conclusion. These paragraphs detail the traits listed as the subtopics from the Introduction. Those subtopics should be the topic sentences in each body paragraph.

  • Always try to include the most important trait 1st, the second most important detail next, and so on.  Each paragraph has 1 trait which is discussed in detail. Include information  about experiences that support the trait which is being discussed.
    • Remember!  You want to pull your reader in so include details that will connect them to your main character.

   III.            Conclusion:

This is the last paragraph in your paper. Try to conclude with a final comment, pointed and well-expressed, that highlights the traits discussed in the paper.

  • Restate your thesis statement.
  • Remind the reader of your most important points.
  • Close with a solid statement which finalizes all you are trying to communicate to the reader.
Brandy copy small
by artist Michelle Rene Goodhew

Another Approach Recommended by Most Editors

 Who is your character physically?

Physical characteristics are the first things we notice when we meet someone. Therefore, this is a good starting point when writing a character sketch. Is your character a woman or a man? Is he or she tall or short? Is your character bald? How old is your character? Does he or she have a disability?

Authors, eager to explore the in-depth psychology of their written subjects, might discount these details as unimportant and base. But it is often these very details that lead to conflict or are the means through which we explore a character’s psychology. As an example of this, we recommend reading Flannery O’Connor’s Good Country People; in this short story, the physical details of the main character are representations of her internal state. Without a vivid description of this character’s physicality, a critical dimension of the plot would be lost and the central conflict would be nonexistent. Answering questions about your character’s physicality is the first step in creating a fully realized character.

What is your character doing?

This is the next question to ask because it brings into account other aspects of story writing such as setting and time. The answer to this question will also affect other aspects of your sketch, such as what your character is wearing or how he or she is feeling. Is your character walking down the street? Is he or she sitting in a park? Is your character working on a boat? Asking what your character is doing will not only help you understand your character, but also his or her relationship to the setting in your story.

Authors may be tempted to gloss over this part of characterization. When asked what his or her character is doing, an author might give a cursory answer; he or she may answer that the subject is at the movies, for example. But consider all that there is to do at a movie theatre: Is the character waiting in line for tickets or at the concession stand? Is he or she waiting to talk to the manager? Perhaps the character is sitting impatiently waiting for the movie to begin. Getting as specific as you can when answering this question will not only help you define your character, but will also help to define the other elements of fiction.

What is your character feeling?

This is probably one of the more complex questions you can ask about your character. Is your character angry? Is he or she happy, sad, tired, or depressed? Does your character love something or someone? Asking questions about your character’s emotional life might evolve into the production of a character history. While this may be tempting, you have to focus on what your subject is feeling within the context of the story you are writing. Although the answers to these questions are important, they are rarely explicitly stated in the story.

Authors may be tempted to start with the emotional or psychological state of their characters and they may even explicitly state them. This can lead to one of the cardinal sins of fiction writing: telling instead of showing. Implicitly showing how your character is feeling by his or her interactions with other characters or the setting is infinitely more interesting to read than explicitly stating whether your character is happy, sad, elated, joyful, or miserable.

Remember a good paragraph is 3-7 sentences. All sentences need to have a subject and a predicate. They should be a complete thought. Utilize tools of dress up in your writing. ie: quality adjectives, strong verbs, adverbs, prepositions, adverbial and or adjectival clauses etc. Write your rough draft and then walk away for at least a day or two. Then go back with FRESH eyes and re-read it.

The Characters by Michelle Rene Goodhew
by artist Michelle Rene Goodhew